The answer is not really. Molaeinezhad M, Jahanfar S. Some women choose to leave the family because there is no affection, intimacy or togetherness, and nobody cares or wants them as a member of the family. Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context. TP Influence of partner on alleviation of menopause symptoms in women—preliminary questionnaire study. Divorce and addiction are two interrelated phenomena where either can cause the other. Motivation for sex worker varies in different societies and cultures. Harking back to Janice Morse's viewpoint, the researchers' formal and informal encounters would have authorized their role as an insider as well as outsider They know menopause as an alarm for finishing childbearing opportunity. She was 37 years old who has used drugs for 15 years FGDs. Indeed when the Western media depicts Iran, it tends to fall into that context, unfortunately, since the revolution of Women perceived their addictive behaviors as what would ruin their lives. To ensure that the study describes the participants' experiences, and the performed activities in all stages were recorded accurately Repeated listening to interviews, coding, continuous comparisons, subthemes and themed extraction until the final themes , the interviews were read and the text was coded and a group met the participants to ask them to confirm the validity and proportionality of the extracted codes with their experiences and opinions. When his friend took out his camera phone to film it, one woman supposedly exclaimed, "Don't film me! The findings of this study can be used as a basis for interventional studies, and in the content of those interventions, themes were revealed which may help to prevent these women's high risk sexual behaviors. Hvas L. She was 39 years old, who used to smoke opium with her husband and has used opium for 19 years FGD4.
As a participant said "selling body should not be a huge guilt in God's sight if it was for saving one's life". They told they even use condom for sex work with their partners. Qualitative content analysis: Discussion In this interpretive approach, the shift in sexual behaviors from the norm to deviated and risky patterns was explored in the context of drug use for women in Iran. What Shahi's piece seemingly failed to mention was the psychological aspect of Newton's Third Law, i. Prz Menopauzalny. Indeed when the Western media depicts Iran, it tends to fall into that context, unfortunately, since the revolution of A review article. The fact that it is making sporadic appearances in the East as a "sexual revolution," does not mean the people are acting out against oppression necessarily, only that they are human. There are few DICs in Tehran, and most of these centers are located in southern Tehran due to the concentration of drug users and other risky population such as sex workers. Following the conflicts, threats and changes of sexuality in midlife, they adopt several coping strategies to preserve and improve their sexual relationships. Loss of contact with family: A participant said "when you go to work, the employer first looks at your appearance, and when he sees your teeth, … then wants you to go with him, when you finished your work and others went home…umm… you have to stay…. It is also important to account for the ongoing 'brain drain' -- why would Iranians want to settle down when they are trying to leave the country for better opportunities overseas? You ignore your family or health. According to our study, despite the repressed sexuality in outward, some middle-aged women acted less modest and more actively in their sexual relationships. Unsafe sexual context:
Discussions of the relationship between drug abuse, gender and sexual risk behaviors have focused on the initiation of high risk sexual behaviors for women, sexually transmissible infections and domestic violence 6. Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context. Although prostitutes can be found with no trouble in post-revolutionary Iran, the Beverly Hills of Tehran known as Elahieh -- famous for its Fereshteh Street -- is the designated area for high-end prostitutes. All interviews 60 to 90 min were audio recorded and transcribed by the research team verbatim. Prostitution existed under the Shah's time not only on the streets, but also in designated Red Light districts such as Shahr-e Noh. A participant said "I was 14 years old when my step-mother arranged my marriage to a man who was 28 years old. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: The result of one study revealed that there was correlation between low self-worth and engagement in risky behaviors such as using higher levels of cigarette, marijuana, and other illegal drugs Each of these centers had approximately 1, to 1, registered cases from these women. Older women talking about sex. Throughout the research, pseudonyms were used to protect the participants' identities.
The majority pointed out the fact that a participant narrated "We have a right to save our lives, nothing left to sell…but our bodies". Our findings showed that earning money was the primary reason for women to become sex worker. It is a mental process with negative feelings about self that can be caused by personal experience resulting from negative social reactions. Our findings highlighted the risk-taking pattern when women narrate their sexual lives after becoming addicted. Gender specific programs are critical to improve treatment outcomes and sexual health for women who are drug users. Strive to survive. According to theories, there are associations between high risk sexual activity and substance use 3. Overall, 4. This is accounted for not only Iran, but also Saudi Arabia and its famous compound parties in Riyadh. Sex Cult. Just like teenagers in the West who like to rebel by breaking rules, the youth of these countries do much the same. Life in the context of drug abuse: Data analysis demonstrated seventh sub-themes and three themes. Conflict of Interest: Women believed that "an addict woman is a fallen woman and deserves to be used as a sexual object".
Harking back to Janice Morse's viewpoint, the researchers' formal and informal encounters would have authorized their role as an insider as well as outsider The participants networking facilitated access to other women outside the DIC who were called outreaches Volunteer women who had history of substance use disorders ; the women in DIC invited other women to attend our group sessions. According to our study, despite the repressed sexuality in outward, some middle-aged women acted less modest and more actively in their sexual relationships. Those who study the Islamic Republic extensively since the death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in will point to the fact that social attitudes changed as a result of disappointment in the failed promises of the Velayat-e Faqih, but also because the 'Children of the Revolution' -- those aged 30 or younger, born during or after the revolution -- were coming of age. I have a husband! The drug dependent women's viewpoint was that sex work impairs their existence. She never said she was sex worker but talked about her girl friend who was an addict and a sex worker FDG2. It has been estimated that While a drug using woman is socially stigmatized, her dignity and honor would be fully destroyed. The findings of this study can be used as a basis for interventional studies, and in the content of those interventions, themes were revealed which may help to prevent these women's high risk sexual behaviors. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; From their point of view, women who use drugs are considered totally fallen and do not deserve to have a healthy and happy life unlike those women who are not labeled as an addict. Labels and stigma related SUDs are social and cultural processes in many countries like Indonesia and Vietnam that may lead to unacceptability and unworthiness at individual, social and cultural levels 38, A narrative review. Feeling worthless clearly put women in the context of risk as reflected from their narratives. The social sources of human sexuality. Similarly, U. Defining sexual health: Selling sex and unsafe sexual encounters were common for the following main reasons: Handbook of personality development.
The participants networking facilitated access to other women outside the DIC who were called outreaches Volunteer women who had history of substance use disorders ; the women in DIC invited other women to attend our group sessions. Narrative Inquiry. Feeling of worthlessness appears to be strongly associated with high-risk behavior in these women. Another participant supported other participants' viewpoints. The objectives of the study were explained and verbal and written consent were obtained prior to data collection. Ethnography demonstrates the formation of human experiences and how they give meaning and interpret their life experiences Language of love in culture of silence: Some of women volunteered to be interviewed individually. Methods Our ethnographic study was done from January to February From the participants' viewpoints "being a woman" was strongly associated with unsafe sexual behavior for substance using women. Full Text Introduction Substance use disorders can be hurtful to health 1. In the context of drug, women's sexual behaviors indicated dramatic changes in risky sexual performance. Veiled Truths:
When he was in prison, I was addicted and homeless". The social sources of human sexuality. Drug using women are often involved in commercial sex work CSW primarily as a result of lack of access to legal employment 9. Another participant supported other participants' viewpoints. Sometimes, it is carried out to pay debts, to survive, or to simply earn a living 14, 48 while in our study sex work was constructed by some other concepts. When his friend took out his camera phone to film it, one woman supposedly exclaimed, "Don't film me! All these articles talking about the stories of sex parties, drugs, alcohol, and raves are only part of the worldwide phenomenon known as 'experimenting' -- it is not breaking news. Acknowledgement Authors would like to thank all the study participants. Did Orientalism get in the way of depicting the people of the Islamic Republic as progressive in the realm of sexuality? J Reprod Infertil. But sexual health is a sensitive research subject, which might dispirit the participants to express themselves overtly; however, all of the women participated voluntarily and had enough assurance for the private interview. Population and Housing Censuses. Although there is a stigma for it amongst various Iranians, some use it as a means to have legal sex , by means of obtaining a temporary marriage license from a cleric at a marriage registry. Figures, Charts, Tables. She aged 29 and used drug for 9 years FGD2. Handbook of personality development. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: Other predisposing factors in joining CSW industry are also pointed out such as: Similarly, U. Playing the role of a young woman during sex was another strategy among some of the middle-aged women. The person with poor feelings of self-worth and low self-efficacy may be principally vulnerable to drug use as a way of escaping from their negative feelings. In a study, English menopausal women used role-play and fake-orgasm for sexual satisfaction of male partner. Negative perception was evident when women described their sexual understanding and sexual experiences. Regarding the above issue, a participant said "I do not have anything to lose in life, you know…I have totally forgotten myself [khod faramoshi]", "I have lost the best times in my life", and "I regret and want to return to the past". This is accounted for not only Iran, but also Saudi Arabia and its famous compound parties in Riyadh. A participant said "I was 14 years old when my step-mother arranged my marriage to a man who was 28 years old. Just like teenagers in the West who like to rebel by breaking rules, the youth of these countries do much the same. Although the generalizability of the findings is not an attribute of qualitative studies, the findings might be generalized whether logically or theoretically.
As Nikki Keddie claims in her book , Modern Iran: Sexual health in older women. An exploratory qualitative study. She was 39 years old, who used to smoke opium with her husband and has used opium for 19 years FGD4. Loss of contact with family: Positive aspects of menopause: Coping Strategies for Changes in Sexuality in Midlife The last emerged theme was about how participants deal with the double-inconsistent situation in aging and sexuality. She was 32 years old who has used drugs for 12 years FGD1. What Shahi's piece seemingly failed to mention was the psychological aspect of Newton's Third Law, i. Feeling worthless clearly put women in the context of risk as reflected from their narratives. University of New South Wales; As reproduction was assumed as a goal of sex in heterosexual relationships, for women who intended to have children, menopause was an unpleasant event. In other words, these women have defined another construction for their gender role in the context of drug abuse. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: Our findings reveal that women's life instinct has been diminished or disappeared, because they are used to seeing themselves as deserving to die and interpret an addicted woman as 'worthless'. However, some other reported less motivation and activity. A person who understands the concept of self tends to perceive everything through the perspective of motivation, imagination and feeling Taken together, our findings reveal that woman's risky sexual behaviors, defined as unprotected sex, sex work, and coercive sexual performance, are influenced by a constellation of gender-based norms consistent with theory of gender schema and sexual script. Regarding the above issue, a participant said "I do not have anything to lose in life, you know…I have totally forgotten myself [khod faramoshi]", "I have lost the best times in my life", and "I regret and want to return to the past". Population and Housing Censuses. She, therefore, uses her sexual potential as a means to struggle for survival. Divorce related stigma is a gender-based phenomenon as it is different for men and women in the Iranian culture Some Iranian families consider separation from husband a terrible outcome which in turn isolates women when their marriage breaks down. The emerged themes were entitled 1 "Continuous paradox over being a sexual agent" with three subthemes of beliefs on asexuality as socially accepted view for women in midlife, changing in motivation for sex and changing in sexual performance, 2 "Considering menopause; opportunities and threats for sexual life" with two subthemes of menopause related cons for sexual life and menopause related pros in sexual life, and 3 "Coping strategies for changes in sexuality in midlife" with two subthemes of different psychological reactions to changes that have influenced the sex and take practical steps for restoration of sexual attraction. According to theories, there are associations between high risk sexual activity and substance use 3. J Women Aging. Also, some women feel free from menstruation troubles and restrictions such as forbidden vaginal intercourse during menstruation. The mannerisms of the youth in Iran "differed little from those of youngsters elsewhere in the world," Bayat claims in his book , Making Islam Democratic:
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