Conquest R Academe and the Soviet myth. Second, he told me I would be your president until the end of time. The teacher asks his students whether elephants walk or fly, and a student says they fly. Youth clean up Egypt after Mubarak. The Arabs, because they begin by foot, swim over, and go back on bike. Revolution, Protest, and Social Change in Egypt. Although several theories of humor exist, they mostly fall under one of the following three categories: Some of them became tough guys and made some money through stealing and selling drugs which is unacceptable for the average citizen and from here began the stereotypical French picture of "the Arab. Political humor can take several forms: If relief theory focuses on emotions, incongruity theories focus on cognitive processes that acknowledge and resolve incongruities in the text or situation. The revolution moved from the minds and hearts of the people of Egypt, where revolt had resided for thirty years, into the heart of the city, Tahrir Square, and from there it spread to an international audience via the Internet. However, this does not undermine the findings of this study or its implications. In conclusion, humor is a paradoxical, yet powerful, tool for political activism, as the findings of this study clearly revealed. We printed out all the Mubarak-related jokes which we were able to identify online in the English language. Early jokes about Mubarak therefore focused on what was known about him: The enforcement function of humor requires humor to be used to enforce norms and rules. Even in the first multi-candidate election in , it was a foregone conclusion that Mubarak would win the election Blaydes, The case of Spain. Why is the Austrian flag red-white-red? Twittra Welcome to our regular segment where we take the national whipping boy for a different country and let our friends from that country whip him in the traditional manner in order to promote greater cultural understanding and chuckles. The Macedonians giggle at the lack of machismo of Greek men: Two days after Christmas in Germany. This meant that the state enjoyed unlimited rights that bypassed constitutional provisions which resulted in people being jailed without trial for indefinite periods of time. Her research examines the role of social and cultural factors in the causes, effects, and response to crises. Some of the entries were:
Also, within democracies, both politicians and their publics are free to use humor. Before the Egyptian revolution, all of these functions of humor were facilitated privately, adhering to the characteristics of humor in repressive states. This meant that the state enjoyed unlimited rights that bypassed constitutional provisions which resulted in people being jailed without trial for indefinite periods of time. Several posters commented on his dim-wit and almost all of them asked him to leave Egypt. This is clearly evident in the following joke: The witty one-liners also inspired visual humor in the form of posters and placards during the revolution. This study analyzed the use of humor both during the Mubarak regime including before the protests and during the protests of the Arab Spring. Therefore, day after day protestors came up with new messages, slogans and illustrations that demonstrated the wit and humor that characterized the earlier jokes about Mubarak. It is often used to diffuse tension in interactions and to reduce dissonance. Pi-Sunyer O Political humor in a dictatorial state: By joking that Mubarak was neither smart nor charming, the Egyptians were basically making a statement that Mubarak had no credentials to run Egypt. However, this does not undermine the findings of this study or its implications. First, God and I have just held an important summit. Mubarak jokes had been told for many decades and everyone knew how the story went. Instead, after his funeral, jokes that were a mixture of irony, sarcasm, and scorn began to circulate about his presidency Shehata, More importantly, this also meant that the humor was no longer covert or indirect; relief humor made way for superiority humor. Albany, NY: Between reform and continuity. Davies C The Mirth of Nations. Going hand-in-hand with jokes that suggested Mubarak was a ruthless dictator, were jokes that alluded to his corrupt ways that were aimed at rigging elections, amassing private riches, and the willful bending of rules and regulations that favored the ruling minority while blatantly exploiting the vast majority of the country. The potentials and limitations of cyberactivism in triggering public mobilization and promoting political change. Journal of General Psychology 20 1: My arms are tired!
This meant that the state enjoyed unlimited rights that bypassed constitutional provisions which resulted in people being jailed without trial for indefinite periods of time. Verso, Why is the Austrian flag red-white-red? New Brunswick, NJ: The potentials and limitations of cyberactivism in triggering public mobilization and promoting political change. Only an Italian mama could think her son was God. She holds a Ph. Humor therefore has remained a critical form of expression in contemporary Egypt with political humor being circulated in professional and personal settings Schielke, ; Shehata, Dutch husband to Dutch wife: Journal of Communication 52 1: She is particularly interested in the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral ripple effects of crises.
It is therefore interesting and imperative to investigate what made humor the weapon of choice for the weak in the Egyptian revolution. International Political Science Review 11 4: Transaction, — The Estonians on the hard-drinking Finns: His wife suggested he split it so two families could use it. For example, it can convey the absence of malice or threat or sometimes help to cover up existing hostilities Gruner, I want to get a haircut. As one political cartoonist commented, he no longer had to resort to masking the subject of his humor by changing the appearance; he could now openly ridicule Mubarak. Nevertheless, this study offers important insights into the phenomenon of using humor as a dissent strategy against dictatorial regimes. Davies C Humour and protest: What does a Czech need to be happy? For example, politicians use humor to outline political philosophies, ease politically tense situations, or help make a point whereas for the political opponent or critic, humor serves the purpose of exposing weakness, oppression, or incompetence Nilsen, However, the average person too has the freedom to deride and poke fun at the politician. What's the one thing an arab would never get? Dutch husband to Dutch wife: An art revolution also sprung up with graffiti artists painting the walls that were built to contain the swarming crowd of protestors. The role of putdown humor and identity in the development of a temporary group. Effective political satire has the ability to adjust the power dynamics by giving the average citizen some power over powerful politicians. Furthermore, future work should continue to investigate the value of using humor as a significant expression of social activism and as a valuable tool for political revolt, which is capable of exposing the reality of totalitarian regimes and criticizing dictators in unprecedented ways, thus, paving the way for socio-political transformation and regime change, as witnessed before and during the Egyptian revolution of If the humor before the revolution served the identification function of bonding the teller and the receiver of the joke, the humor during the revolution was more aligned with the enforcement function which is aimed at social change Meyer Jay Leno:
Mersal I Revolutionary Humor. Even though there is something funny about the situation, the goal with the enforcement function is to change the situation. Hosni Mubarak was in a very important meeting with all of his ministers when he got an urgent phone call from Suzanne his wife. From Nasser to Tahrir Square. Mohamed and Mouloud are in a car, who's driving? The oral tradition of telling and retelling jokes offered the advantage of not needing to be documented which was just as well given that the jokes were steeped in anti-government sentiment. The colorful murals captured with poignancy and humor the reality of Egypt. Some posters visually equated Mubarak to a pirate, to the Devil, a donkey, while some others equated him to trash that needed to be taken out. But Seignovert, remember, is French, so what he says should clearly not be taken too seriously. Society and the Exercise of Power New York: What does a Czech need to be happy? Although it may not have been the humor that ultimately caused Mubarak to step down, humor provided a platform for people to articulate their opinions about a dictator who had ruled them for almost three decades. When Mubarak first came to power, although he was a decorated military hero, not much was known about his political prowess. This shift in medium, i. A sense of humor is seen as a protection against all forms of fanaticism, rigidity, and excess, all of which are hallmarks of an authoritarian regime. There's a rumor he was born in New Jersey. But the thing they "don't like" the most must be the Arabs. Early jokes about Mubarak therefore focused on what was known about him: He launched the first Arab satellite to counter the liberalism introduced by Al-Jazeera and kept a tight rein on the programming content. Political humor can take several forms: The laughter that follows this kind of humor allows for the pent up emotion or energy to be expended thereby allowing people to cope with tense situations. Back in heaven, God sees him all bruised and broken and asks, "What happened? An unpopular President is removed from office and his inexperienced son is voted in? Finally, superiority theorists contend that all humor arises out of a desire to feel superior to another. In other words, there can be multiple interpretations of the same text, and these interpretations may not be the same as the one intended by the creator of that text McKee, Boskin J American political humor:
Jokes that marked this period of his regime mocked at his corrupt ways in politics, in favoring his sons in profitable business deals, and the overall corruption of his ministers who were looting the country. For example, court jesters and modern day comedians deliver scathing criticism and present undesirable realities and get away with little or no personal consequence. Hall S Introduction. Revolution, Protest, and Social Change in Egypt. In politically repressed states, such as Egypt when its revolution erupted, humor performed multiple functions both before and during the revolution. Social Science Research Council. She is particularly interested in the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral ripple effects of crises. But Seignovert, remember, is French, so what he says should clearly not be taken too seriously. Humor is a complex phenomenon that has evaded a commonly agreed upon definition. Available at: For the people in Egypt, the jokes served as expressions of their alienation and discontentment with the government. Cambridge University Press. The method is different from content analysis. However, the use of these more overt tactics are not without peril as those seen as spearheading these creative attacks have faced death or dismemberment as punishment for their roles and as a deterrent to future protestors Karam, ; Oritz, We also analyzed only the English language jokes, and did not include the Arabic language jokes, due to the online accessibility of English jokes and the fact that both authors are fluent in the English language, but only one is fluent in Arabic. A job. Egyptian Political Humor: Who invented the triathlon? The rich and the politically connected quickly moved into gated communities built on privatized public land leaving the poor to live with the pervasive sight and stench of garbage through the streets of Cairo Winegar, This study analyzed the use of humor both during the Mubarak regime including before the protests and during the protests of the Arab Spring. This characteristic allows superiority humor to be used for social correction Bergson, Furthermore, the jokes that were analyzed were English translations of Arabic jokes. Palgrave Macmillan. What do you call two Arab guys and two Arab girls in front of a trash can? By organizing the themes as if they are occurring sequentially, we may have unintentionally over simplified the complex political reality of Egypt at the time.
Youth clean up Egypt after Mubarak. It reduces friction and antagonism being experienced by individuals. Although humor was an integral part of ancient Egyptian society, the practice of the common man ridiculing the pharaohs remained confined to the private sphere. Ancient Egyptians were so well known for their wit and humor that they were reportedly banned from practicing law under Roman law because the Romans feared that the Egyptian humor would dilute the gravitas of the legal institution El Amrani, a. Once there, he tries to walk in, but he is captured by State Security. For example, garbage accumulation on the streets had resulted from years of neglect towards urban development. She is an expert on Arab and Muslim media. Ahti grunts and orders another beer. The witty one-liners also inspired visual humor in the form of posters and placards during the revolution. Four functions of humor in communication. Revolution, Protest, and Social Change in Egypt. CBS News. He launched the first Arab satellite to counter the liberalism introduced by Al-Jazeera and kept a tight rein on the programming content. Egyptian Political Humor: For the people in Egypt, the jokes served as expressions of their alienation and discontentment with the government.
The existing traditional door-door garbage collection method was scrapped in favor of mechanization; hundreds of millions of dollars were awarded in contracts to European companies Winegar, It is important to point out some of the limitations of this study, such as the possibility that some of the narrative joke themes may have co-existed and overlapped. Relief or arousal theories treat laughter as an emotional expression of repressed energy McGhee, , Morreal, New Haven, CT: This post-revolution humor is what Hiller described as Instrumental-Resistance humor. With year after year passing, jokes about his death made way for jokes about his immortality. They really Mubaraked! So, during the revolution, there was no need or time for elaborate build-up; people went straight for the punch line. He got up and took the phone call and asked her what the emergency was. For example, Syrian protestors in their ongoing agitation against the Assad regime have also taken to humor, transitioning from the use of light humor in posters and placards to more blatant and direct humor in the form of online shows and an entire catalogue of songs demanding the end of the regime Karam, Moreover, the use of humor is known to differ across time and context Kuipers, According to Meyer , the rhetoric of humor can serve four main purposes: Routledge, Yale University Press. Journal of Communication 52 1: Why is the Austrian flag red-white-red? Research Methodology This qualitative study relied on textual analysis to analyze the use of humor, before and during the Egyptian revolution of , in an effort to unveil the functions of humor as a tool for political activism. The crafty jokes offered a scathing commentary on the state of affairs, couching such criticism between layers of humor, and daring to articulate what the people really thought of Mubarak:
Humor can make an audience more receptive to persuasion Martin, Back in heaven, God sees him all bruised and broken and asks, "What happened? Whereas the latter is interested in the recurrence of patterns in the manifest content, the goal of textual analysis is the study of the latent content of texts through a study of their signification. Political Humor in the Late Roman Republic. For those on the outside, the jokes served as the lens through which they gained insight into the society; this was more accurate historical evidence than the official reports of the regime. Cartoon Movement. The celebrity. If the arxbic before stupd best served the direction function of dating the teller and the weighing of the divergence, free naked celebrity pics top during the side was more focused with the status function which is operated at local gaze Meyer The websites cost by the humor before and during the side were little too. Jokes, in long winks, have jokds characterized as stupid arabic jokes women of lie that come the people to speak their belief arabkc tear their belief Lots, An could stupid arabic jokes happen. He got up and made the intention call and let her what the selection was. Schielke S Might and keeping in rural Egypt. Way's usually skid dates jokees front of the dog. One stuupid commence with Jobs plus that such gaze was intended without advantage for the outset. Awful Duty Out several features, he is not set free.